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What is a liquid cooled data center?

Views: 58     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-11-01      Origin: Site

Classification of liquid cooling methods

Spray type (refrigerant contact)

The liquid storage and openings at the top of the chassis allow the cooling liquid to spray the heating body according to the position of the heating element and the size of the calorific value, so as to achieve the purpose of cooling the equipment. The sprayed liquid is in direct contact with the cooled device, and the cooling efficiency is high; however, when the liquid encounters high-temperature objects during the spraying process, it will float and evaporate. Degraded cleanliness or impact on other equipment.

data center cooling 1

Immersion (refrigerant contact)

In single-phase immersion liquid cooling, the electronic fluoride solution remains liquid. The electronic components are directly immersed in the dielectric liquid, the liquid is placed in a sealed but easily accessible container, and the heat is transferred from the electronic components to the liquid. Typically a circulating pump is used to flow the heated electronic fluoride to a heat exchanger where it is cooled and circulated back to the vessel.

Single-phase immersion liquid cooling (maintain liquid)

data center cooling 2

Two-phase immersion liquid cooling (liquid and gaseous)

In the two-phase immersion liquid cooling, the heat transfer efficiency of the liquid is exponentially improved through the boiling and condensation process of the electronic fluoride liquid. The electronic components are directly immersed in the dielectric liquid in a container that is airtight but easy to handle. Within this vessel, heat is transferred from the electronic components into the liquid, causing the liquid to boil and producing steam. The steam condenses on a heat exchanger (condenser) inside the container, transferring heat to the facility cooling water circulating in the data center.

data center cooling 3

Cold plate type (non-contact refrigerant)

Until the chip cools, the heat is dissipated by pumping the circulating liquid medium through the cold plate assembled to the electronic components. Liquids do not come into direct contact with electronic equipment. While non-dielectric fluids such as water/glycol are typically used for direct-to-chip cooling, dielectric electronic fluoride fluids can also be used in direct-to-chip applications, mitigating leak-related risks and improving hardware/IT equipment reliability. Direct-to-die cooling is possible using single-phase and two-phase technologies

data center cooling

Coolant classification

mineral oil

Mineral oil is also an inexpensive coolant. Single-phase mineral oil is non-toxic, odorless, non-volatile, highly viscous, and easily forms residues on the surface of equipment. Although the flash point is high, it is still possible to burn under certain conditions.


The biggest feature is insulation and non-combustible. It is the safest one in the data center liquid cooling technology, and is currently the most widely used, but the price is high.


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